Acute postretinal blindness: ophthalmologic, neurologic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings in dogs and cats (seven cases)

Fonte: Cristina Seruca, Sergio Rodenas, Marta Leiva, Teresa Pena and Sonia Anor

Meningioma de quiasma óptico
   Meningioma de quiasma óptico

Objective: To describe the ophthalmologic, neurologic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of seven animals with acute postretinal blindness as sole neurologic deficit. Methods: Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs and cats with postretinal blindness of acute presentation, that had a cranial MRI performed as part of the diagnostic workup. Only animals lacking other neurologic signs at presentation were included. Complete physical, ophthalmic, and neurologic examinations, routine laboratory evaluations, thoracic radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, electroretinography, and brain MRI were performed in all animals. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and postmortem histopathologic results were recorded when available. Results: Four dogs and three cats met the inclusion criteria. Lesions affecting the visual pathways were observed on magnetic resonance (MR) images in six cases. Location, extension, and MRI features were described. Neuroanatomic localization included: olfactory region with involvement of the optic chiasm (n = 4), pituitary fossa with involvement of the optic chiasm and optic tracts (n = 1), and optic nerves (n = 1). Of all lesions detected, five were consistent with intracranial tumors (two meningiomas, one pituitary tumor, two nasal tumors with intracranial extension), and one with bilateral optic neuritis that was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Histologic diagnosis was obtained in four cases and included one meningioma, one pituitary carcinoma, one nasal osteosarcoma, and one nasal carcinoma. Conclusions: Central nervous system (CNS) disease should be considered in dogs and cats with acute blindness, even when other neurologic deficits are absent. This study emphasizes the relevance of MRI as a diagnostic tool for detection and characterization of CNS lesions affecting the visual pathways.

 

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